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Platinum supply and demand

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The current edition of Platinum Quarterly includes analysis of platinum supply and demand fundamentals in Q1 2021 and a forecast for the full year 2021. It also provides an outlook for changes in global above ground stocks of platinum. Issue Briefs also include concise summaries on supply and demand related themes Due to growing demand and shrinking supply, the deficit reached 19,000 ounces in the first three months of 2021. The WPIC said that it expects platinum will see an annual deficit of 158,000 ounces this year. The report said that global platinum demand increased to 1.969 million ounces, a rise of 26% compared to the first quarter of last year Platinum supply and demand were similar in 2019 and resulting in a balanced platinum market for a second consecutive year. However, platinum supply in 2019 only saw a surplus of 65 000 oz in.

There is an overall general trend of decreasing supply and increasing demand. Case Study. Platinum group elements (PGEs) face a very different problem than that of other strategic metals. Despite the fact that the Bushveld Complex mine in South Africa has the resources to supply world demands for platinum for the next century, miners' strikes complicate the economic stability of PGEs. As previously mentioned, South Africa is largely responsible for the global production of PGEs. Despite the. Platinum supply and demand - updating 2021 forecasts For 2021 total platinum supply is now forecast to rise 16% year-on-year to 7,883 koz. However, it will remain below pre-pandemic 2019 levels, while total platinum demand is expected to rise by 5% year-on-year to 8,041 koz. As a result, the platinum market i Wednesday, the WPIC said the platinum market saw a deficit of 932,000 ounces last year as supply constraints overwhelmed demand. Although the market saw its biggest deficit on record, it was still below the WPIC forecast for a shortfall of 1.2 million ounces

Platinum demand last year fell 7% to 7.74 million oz but supply was hit even harder, declining 17% - or some 1.4 million oz - to 6.8 million oz. This was a result of Covid-19 lockdowns that shut down South African supply for about 45 days. In addition, Anglo American Platinum suffered the closure of its refining operations which it said recently would result in inventories that would take. Total platinum demand in 2020 is forecast to be 7,438 koz, 11% (-948 koz) lower than in 2019 due to lower demand from all four demand segments: automotive (-464 koz), jewellery (-287 koz),.. Understanding the dynamics of platinum demand is essential to understanding the investment case for platinum, which is based on an evaluation of trends in platinum demand, supply, and market balances. Currently, platinum demand growth drivers, against a backdrop of constrained supply, increase the consequent likelihood of future deficits

As indicated above, the supply-and-demand fundamentals for platinum are difficult to unpack and present. Most market research organisations present a complicated table of supply and demand, which results in a market balance figure at the bottom of the table. Figure 8 below illustrates a simple and unique presentatio Platinum-Group Metals—World Supply and Demand By David R. Wilburn and Donald I. Bleiwas Introduction Platinum-group metals (PGMs) include platinum, palladium, rhodium, ruthenium, osmium, and iridium. PGMs are used in a wide variety of applications such as vehicle catalysts for controllin The price of the precious industrial metal has been driven by a significant supply and demand imbalance. Demand for While speculative demand for platinum has not benefited from the surge in appetite for gold and silver, it will likely benefit from speculative interest in the reflationary tailwinds expected for next year as the vaccine deployment helps the global recovery, the commodity. A slight majority of platinum demand comes from the car industry's catalytic converter demand to help reduce car and auto engine emissions. The next largest sector of platinum demand is for platinum jewelry especially savored due to the platinum being highly resistant to tarnishing and warping Total platinum demand in 2021 is therefore expected to increase 2 percent (+150 koz) to 8,089 koz. For Aldis, a potential catalyst for the metal will be the emergence and growth of the hydrogen..

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supply demand 2021 - Kostenloser Versan

Distribution of the global supply of platinum group metals by source 2019 Distribution of Canada's platinum group metal production by type 2019 Platinum demand for glass uses in China 2013-202 As iron ore and steel prices have skyrocketed in the last year, U.S. demand could soon lessen depending on the Biden administration's actions. A potential infrastructure bill would bring investment into America's steel mills to build supply for the future, and any walkbalk on the Trump administration's 2018 tariffs on imported steel could further soften supply constraints

PMMs latest free global report on supply and demand of platinum group metals.... See More. Precious Metals Management (PMM) Buying and Selling. Your specialist global team of experts dedicated to purchasing and selling of platinum group metals (pgm).... See More The demand for platinum emanates largely from the autocatalysts (40%), jewellery (34%) and general industrial demand. While recycling provides a meaningful contribution to supply, it is not sufficient to cater for the growth in the automotive demand We are no experts in supply/demand data in the platinum market. But our common sense says this: if all 3 leading indicators discussed in this article point in the same direction, and the chart confirms this direction, it probably leads to the investing thesis that our platinum prediction for 2021 should be wildly bullish. Platinum Chart and Price Targets . Let's now combine the findings of. This data comprises of the supply & demand of platinum, palladium and rhodium metals. Primary supply is calculated from actual mine production and excludes the sale of stock in order to provide pure production data. Gross demand is a measure of intensity of use. Net demand is a measure of theoretical requirement for new metal i.e. net of recycling. Automotive demand is based on vehicle production data and not sales

World Platinum Investment Council - Supply & Demand

Platinum supply is lower than demand below. As mentioned above, as a commodity, platinum is prone to the forces of supply and demand. The particular trait for platinum is that most of it is produced in South Africa, which is a large producer of many raw materials, but 75% of the global platinum production is concentrated in SA, which makes the supply side vulnerable to social, political. Platinum-group metals--world supply and demand @inproceedings{Wilburn2005PlatinumgroupMS, title={Platinum-group metals--world supply and demand}, author={D. Wilburn and D. Bleiwas}, year={2005} } D. Wilburn, D. Bleiwas; Published 2005; Environmental Science; The United States is dependent on imports of platinum-group metals (PGMs), which includes platinum, palladium, rhodium, ruthenium, osmium. Platinum Demand Platinum Supply Palladium Demand alladium Supply Others North America Russia South Africa Others Electrical Jewellery Autocatalyst Others North America Russia South Africa Investment Industrial Jewellery Autocatalyst 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 0-500-1,000 800 600 400 200 0 Movements in stocks Price $/oz Jewellery Autocatalyst Investment Industrial Gross Palladium Demand by Region. PLATINUM SUPPLY/DEMAND ('000 oz)* 2019 2020 2021f 2020-2021 %change . SUPPLY . Mining Supply 6,097 4,888 5,907 21% . Recycling 2,121 1,912 1,975 3%.

Supply is weak The deficit for the Platinum market was the largest on record with a 2020 total of -932 koz. Total demand dropped by 7%, the sharp decline in mining supply of 20% (1203koz), and the. In his 50-pages-plus study, Davis concludes that substantial platinum supply/demand issues will proceed increasingly from 2021, and that this rarefied imbalance will result in significant upward price pressure on platinum going into the future. Davis surmises that the emphasis placed on the choice of reef to be mined in order to meet the high demand for palladium and rhodium, will likely be at.

Platinum supply recovers, although not yet to pre-pandemic levels Demand growth driven in particular by industrial, automotive and jewellery sectors, as global recovery gains momentu Platinum demand will plummet by 18% this year and supply by 13% as the coronavirus batters the global economy, leaving the market with a moderate surplus, the World Platinum Investment Council.

Platinum's supply and demand - Forexliv

A stellar rebound in automotive demand and sustained strong investment demand for precious metals lifted platinum demand well above supply in Q3 2020, leaving the quarter in a deficit of 709,00. In the following platinum supply vs. demand chart, you can likely see how the annual platinum supply has kept a steady pace with ongoing platinum demand fabrications. Again, we reiterate most platinum that has ever gotten mined has got put to some use or application. This factor likely means there is much less .999 fine platinum supply available today than has ever been mined and put to use.

Global platinum demand will marginally outpace supply in 2019 - increasing by 2.4% and 1.6%, respectively - the World Platinum Investment Council (WPIC) announced in its latest Platinum. The supply-and-demand fundamentals for platinum are difficult to unpack when compared to the supply-and-demand fundamentals for palladium. Figure 7 illustrates the market balance for platinum and palladium respectively (JM). On the macro long-term level, platinum has exhibited an average annual net market balance deficit of some c.110koz and a total deficit of some c.1.45moz between 2007 and. The high price, sustained demand growth and limited supply growth of palladium makes material platinum demand growth due to substitution of some palladium in gasoline cars extremely likely. Details of this substitution remain proprietary and highly confidential. Many market participants and investors are unable/unwilling to act until this confidential information is known. Fortunately. PLATINUM was in a fourth successive supply deficit in the first quarter of 2021 as automotive, investment and jewellery demand outstripped supply, which also grew but was constrained.

World Platinum Investment Council - Supply & Deman

Platinum demand grows 26% in Q1, expect more supply

  1. Worldwide supply of platinum 2005-2021. Published by M. Garside , Jun 4, 2021. In 2021, the global supply of platinum is forecasted at 6.1 million ounces. Platinum is one of the least reactive.
  2. The WPIC's Platinum Quarterly report for the fourth quarter said in 2021 the balance of supply and demand was expected to produce a modest -60 000 ounces deficit as a result of a 17 percent.
  3. PLATINUM (THOUSANDS OF OUNCES) 2019 2020 % change SUPPLY Mine supply 6077 4888 -20% Recyling 2082 1642 -21% TOTAL SUPPLY 8159 6530 -20% DEMAND Autocatalyst 2858 2224 -22% Chemical 676 614 -9%.
  4. JOHANNESBURG - THE WORLD Platinum Investment Council (WPIC) yesterday projected an annual deficit of the metal this year and next year, with demand expected to outstrip supply on the back of.

Furthermore, projected supply levels according to the World Platinum Investment Council are expected to rise to 7865 koz. However, demand is again expected to exceed supply in 2021 with a level of. Platinum-group metals--world supply and demand. The United States is dependent on imports of platinum-group metals (PGMs), which includes platinum, palladium, rhodium, ruthenium, osmium, and iridium. PGMs are used in a wide variety of applications, including vehicle catalysts for controlling vehicle pollution, chemical catalysts and coatings.

Supply will also rise but remain lower than in 2019. Platinum fell to an 18-year low of $558 an ounce last. year as the cononavirus spread. It has risen to around $1,200. but remains significantly below its highs between 2008 and 2014. Many analysts and investors expect further price gains in. the years ahead as demand, including from the. Supply is weak . The deficit for the Platinum market was the largest on record with a 2020 total of -932 koz. Total demand dropped by 7%, the sharp decline in mining supply of 20% (1203koz), and the total supply fell by 1413 koz. A deficit is set to remain. As economies get back to normal on the global vaccination programme the demand for platinum is forecast to increase by 3% and supply to. Platinum demand in the automotive sector to rise above pre-pandemic levels; As the global economy continues to recover, underpinned by widespread stimulus measures, the January-March period (Q1'21) saw demand for platinum increased by 26% (+405 koz) year-on-year to 1,969 koz, the World Platinum Investment Council (WPIC) said in its latest quarterly report. The report released on Monday. The outlook for platinum group metals (PGMs) is one of constrained supply and very strong demand growth. You've got the entire PGMs suite that is short and that certainly will translate into tight markets, World Platinum Investment Council (WPIC) Director of Research Trevor Raymond told Mining Weekly in a Zoom interview on Monday

Platinum supply to exceed demand by only 1

The World Platinum Investment Council (WPIC) said, for the third consecutive quarter, platinum posted a deficit in Q4 2020 of 170 koz, as strong demand in automotive, industrial and jewellery sectors and sustained strong investment demand for platinum outstripped constrained supply DEMAND to buy platinum will rise in 2018 according to a new forecast, while mining supply of this rare precious metal will continue to fall. That means the global platinum market - having come into balance in 2017 after 5 years of demand to buy outstripping mine output plus scrap recycling - will return to deficit in 2018 according to the new forecasts from independent analysts SFA (Oxford.

Since 1985, Johnson Matthey has published supply and demand data twice yearly, in the Platinum and Interim Platinum series of reviews (1985-2013) and in the Pgm Market Report (2014-2021). Previous. Platinum price to rise as green hydrogen emerges as a new demand segment. The rarity of platinum, combined with a decline in supply and overwhelming demand, is a formula for a build-up of a. Platinum and palladium prices took a significant hit at the start of the pandemic, after growing robustly in the previous year on the back of tight supply and strong demand prospects Steven.

Palladium jewelry and investment fill out the general remaining 10% of annual palladium demand worldwide. Today's annual worldwide demand for palladium has averaged at just under 10 million ounces or around 300 metric tonnes per year. Yet palladium has been running supply deficits since the year 2007 according to data Iridium is a platinum-group metal. In 2020, the global demand for iridium amounted to around 237,000 ounces, a decrease compared with the previous year. This figure is expected to increase in 2021.

Platinum has emerged as this year's top-performing major precious metal, surging to the highest since 2014. Its use in catalytic converters has propelled demand amid optimism over the automobile. platinum supply and demand are cited from the relevant literature to provide an economic context and provide an example for evaluating the economic potential of future asteroid- derived precious and strategic metals. Introduction: Since the launch of Sputnik in 1957, mankind has traveled a road of increasing dependence on the space frontier, rapidly advancing technology and creating industries. Since 1985, Johnson Matthey has published supply and demand data twice yearly, in the Platinum and Interim Platinum series of reviews (1985-2013) and in the Pgm Market Report (2014-2021) Yes, and not just palladium. Precious metals used in small quantities by the auto industry have a history of price spikes when demand outstrips supply. In the decade following 1998, platinum.

Platinum Group Elements: Supply and Deman

PLATINUM was in a fourth successive supply deficit in the first quarter of 2021 as automotive, investment and jewellery demand outstripped supply which also grew, but was constrained, said to the World Platinum Investment Council (WPIC).. Commenting in its first quarter report, the WPIC also said that platinum supply was unlikely to recover from its pre-Covid-19 levels this year Consumption of platinum by industry and jewellers plunged last year as the coronavirus swept the globe, but the pandemic also disrupted supply and fuelled massive demand from investors looking for. The World Platinum Investment Council (WPIC) saw demand for platinum to grow in the first quarter, but there will be an annual supply deficit, the third in a row, in 2021.The outlook was detailed in the Council's Platinum Quarterly, published on May 17.. The first quarter saw the fourth consecutive quarterly supply deficit of about 19,000 oz., Demand should be 5% higher this year than last.

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Growing platinum demand to drive market as supply flat

  1. Platinum Supply/Demand: Glaux and HSBC Predictions Through 2021. Feb 3,2016 19:04 CST. industry news. Source: SMM. The WPIC recently commissioned a report to look at the supply-demand fundamentals for platinum and report on the likely price direction over the next six years through to 2021. by Stuart Burns on FEBRUARY 1, 2016 The World Platinum Investment Council (WPIC) recently commissioned a.
  2. ++ Platinum supply recovers, although not yet to pre-pandemic levels ++ Demand growth driven in particular by industrial, automotive and jewellery sectors, as global recovery gains momentum ++ Platinum's use in green technologies sees investment demand remain strong . The full Platinum Quarterly report can be downloaded free of charge from World Platinum Investment Council's website.
  3. If you look at the supply and demand numbers for the past 10 years, it has always been quite obvious that palladium autocatalyst demand, which occupies more than 80% of total demand, was increasing at a far greater pace than that of platinum (33% of total demand). According to the 2019 GFMS PGM Survey, in 2010 auto-catalyst demand for palladium was 165 tonnes and for platinum 94 tonnes. In.
  4. Supply and Demand Concepts. As an economist for ABC Plastics, your boss has asked you to respond to some questions she has regarding the company's main product, tablet cases. A marketing research firm recently developed the following supply and demand schedules for tablet cases: Price/Case. Quantity Demanded. Quantity Supplied. $24. 5000 . 18000. 22. 6000. 17000. 20. 7000. 16000. 18. 8000.

Platinum to run narrow supply deficit in 2021 but demand

  1. Long-serving precious metals consultant Dr David Davis has reached the conclusion, after a comprehensive study, that the demand for platinum group metals (PGMs) is poised to outstrip stagnant supply. Davis, who has spent several months carrying out a 'deep dive' into the future of PGMs for precious metals researchers in Singapore, Australia and the UK, has concluded that demand for the.
  2. , Stillwater Mining, North American Palladium African Rainbow Minerals Eastern Platinum, Glencore Xstrata, Aquarius Platinum, Johnson Matthey
  3. Platinum's supply is concentrated in medium-to-high risk jurisdictions, while demand is strongly tied to worldwide auto production. Here we present Part 2 of the Platinum Series. Here we present Part 2 of the Platinum Series
  4. d. 70% Frischfleisch für Hunde aller Größen und Rassen: Hundenahrung statt Hundefutter! Effektive Zahnsteinentfernung für Hunde und Katzen

WPIC: Platinum demand forecast rises as investors flock to

  1. Platinum supply recovers, although not yet to pre-pandemic levels; Demand growth driven in particular by industrial, automotive and jewellery sectors, as global recovery gains momentum ; Platinum's use in green technologies sees investment demand remain strong; The World Platinum Investment Council (WPIC) today published its Platinum Quarterly for the first quarter of 2021, with a revised.
  2. Platinum gets a boost as global demand outpaces supply Platinum supplies are forecast to increase by 16% in 2021 to 7.88-million ounces, while demand will grow 5% to 8.04-million ounces BL PREMIU
  3. ing supply of 11%, that more than offset the 2% rise in recycle supply, and a 7% rise in total demand. The supply fall was.
  4. read Investment demand is currently driving the platinum sector, which is forecasted to experience a 9 percent increase for 2019, said the World Platinum Investment Council (WPIC) in its most recent quarterly report released on Friday (September 6). Investor sentiment has.
  5. Johnson Matthey: Platinum Group Metals Prices Soar as Demand Recovers Amid Supply Disruption. The platinum market is forecast to move back into surplus in 2021, despite a 27% gain in autocatalyst demand, according to estimates published in Johnson Matthey's latest Pgm Market Report
  6. Analysts also said longstanding supply issues of the metal in top producer South Africa could lend further support by potentially widening its supply deficit. Spot gold fell 0.3% to $1,817.41 per ounce pressured by U.S. Treasury yields topping a near 11-month peak on Friday, and as global shares scaled a fresh record peak
  7. Platinum supply and demand in thousands of troy ounces (Koz) * estimate 2012 from Johnson Matthey Platinum 2012 interim review. In my opinion, a must read for all potential investors of platinum. The report estimates 2012 supply and demand of platinum based on January to September 2012 information. ** estimate 2013, based on research in thism post to identify the main supply and demand factors.

Platinum Industrial Demand - CME Grou

The World Platinum Investment Council (WPIC) said, for the third consecutive quarter, platinum posted a deficit in Q4 2020 of 170 koz, as strong demand in automotive, industrial and jewellery sectors and sustained strong investment demand for platinum outstripped constrained supply. Overall, despite a year that saw the global economy contracting by 3.5%, the platinum The deficit comes as total platinum supply in 2020 is expected to fall by 18 percent to 6.73 million ounces, due mainly to mine supply curtailment and a 5 percent decline in demand Demand can grow much more rapidly than supply. Some analysts expect to see widening supply deficits for silver and platinum in 2021. According to Bloomberg Intelligence commodity strategist Mike McGlone, silver will head toward a new record high on improving fundamentals and gathering technical strength The World Platinum Investment Council (WPIC) said, for the third consecutive quarter, platinum posted a deficit in Q4 2020 of 170 koz, as strong demand in automotive, industrial and jewellery sectors and sustained strong investment demand for platinum outstripped constrained supply. Overall, despite a year that saw the global economy..

Platinum market relatively balanced as COVID-19 affects supply and demand - World Platinum Investment Council. May 18, 2020. 0. 86. Share. Facebook. Twitter. Pinterest. WhatsApp. Linkedin. ReddIt. Email. Print. Tumblr. Telegram. Mix. VK. Digg. LINE . Viber. Editor's Note: With such market volatility, stay up to date with daily news! Get caught up in a few minutes with our quick summary of. 2 3 Historical platinum and palladium demand and supply 4 Automotive • Spread of emission legislation and adoption of stricter standards Emission Limits (g/m SILVER SUPPLY & DEMAND. The Silver Institute works with the Metals Focus team, a leading research company that is based in London, to prepare and publish a comprehensive report on the previous year's silver supply and demand trends, with special emphasis on key markets and regions. This annual survey also includes current information on prices and leasing rates, mine production, silver trade.

Supply and demand in 2020 5 Platinum outlook Supply and demand in 2021 14 Palladium outlook Supply and demand in 2021 21 Rhodium outlook Supply and demand in 2021 26 Ruthenium and iridium Summary of demand in 2020 and outlook for 2021 29 Special feature Green hydrogen for a net zero future What role for pgm? 32 Tables Platinum supply and demand: Troy ounces 38 Platinum gross demand by region. TOKYO (MarketWatch) -- Chinese jewelry demand for platinum is poised to climb to a record level this year, but it won't likely be enough to rescue the global market from a net supply surplus with. Future supply-demand inequality for strategic resources will cause a variety of global problems including inaccessibility, price increases, instability, and environmental and humanitarian disregard. This is a pressing issue as supply for many strategic resources is expected to fall behind demand within the next 100 years. A global solution ensuring future supply meets future demand is. Platinum demand emanates mainly from autocatalysts (40%1), jewellery (34%1) and general industrial demand. More recently investment demand has also grown. Autocatalyst demand, subject to technology improvements, is relatively fixed, and driven by regulatory requirements on new vehicle sales. Recycling of spent autocatalysts provide a meaningful contribution into the autocatalyst demand, but is. Platinum's supply/demand fundamentals are secure. In case platinum mining ends today, above-ground reserves would last less than a year. Conversely, gold reserves would last approximately one-quarter of a century. Platinum's supply is tight even during periods of comparatively normal mining production. Strong Demand and Why It Will Continue . In the United States and many of the world's.

Platinum and palladium to run higher as industrial demand

This is a list of Commodities which are available to trade on the Commodities Market. Each individual commodity belongs in a group. Each commodity tends to be supplied or demanded by one or more categories of star system, e.g. Extraction systems tend to produce Minerals and Metals, while each Mineral may be demanded by Refinery, Industrial or High Tech systems. The categories of star system. Platinum supply/demand dynamics are tight - and getting tighter every month. While the western world's industrial demand is understandably a function of economic growth - which obviously increases at a moderate rate - emerging countries demand for platinum is literally exploding. For example, China. It is a well-known statistic that the Sino-behemoth has enjoyed the highest percent of annual.

Platinum Investment Fundamentals Supply Demand KITCO

Media Missing The Point On Platinum Supply And Demand Situation By Dave Forest - Sep 10, 2015, 9:42 AM CDT It's interesting the spin major media puts on events in the resource sector Platinum Soars To Six Year Highs Amid Supply Shortage, Industrial Demand Hope The epidemic of catalytic converter theft should have been the most recent tell; but combining the recent supply shortage (the US Mint unable to meet platinum coin Dr David Davis. The rarity of platinum, combined with a decline in supply and overwhelming demand, is a formula for a build-up of a perfect storm, says independent precious metals consultant Dr David Davis, who says that this will lead to significant upward pressure on the price of platinum, to which investors have already begun to react Traditional Supply and Demand Factors for Silver. Boasting brilliant luster and unparalleled physical and chemical properties, silver straddles the spheres of precious metals investing, retail, and industry.Considered a precious metal for its value and rarity, supply of silver is limited, with mining and scrap serving as the two primary sources replenishing markets

Copper, lead, zinc prices to stay on the boil - MINING

Platinum Outlook 2021: Strong Price Performance Expecte

Platinum Supply and Demand. In terms of supply, 80% of platinum is mined in South Africa, 6% comes from North America and an estimated 11% comes from Russia. There are no substantial above-ground stockpiles of platinum if supply disruptions occur. One pure ounce of platinum requires 8 tons of raw ore to be mined. The industry is subject to strikes, union pressures and electrical shortages. In. Not only do you learn how to understand true price action on a chart as it applies to Supply / Demand trading, but you have access to probably the best mentor in the business in PFA's live trading room. Had I started at PFA, I would have saved a lot of time, frustration and money. This program and its founder are simply the best and are worthy of the highest commendation. I cannot recommend. Platinum Supply and Demand. India and Gold. Indian gold imports (updated monthly) Russia and Gold. China and Gold. The Importance of Gold To Individuals and Nations. Gold Reserves by Country - Top 20. Gold vs. the Dollar. Gold vs. the Dow. 12 Ways Silver Is Different Than Gold. China Hoards its Gold Production and Ramps up its Imports . Gold Around the World. Gold and Silver Price.

Platinum: Don't Fight The Supply And Demand Fundamentals

In other years, supply exceeds demand, and above ground silver supply builds up. With investor demand for silver increasing, and with production from mines decreasing, markets may become dependent on silver recycling to keep supply and demand in balance. But if recycling fails to bridge the gap, the next few years could see silver in short supply

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